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Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage.
The urban centres are mostly located in the highlands of the Andes mountains.
In August 1538, he founded provisionally its capital near the Muisca cacicazgo of Bacatá, and named it "Santa Fe".
The name soon acquired a suffix and was called Santa Fe de Bogotá.
Two other notable journeys by early conquistadors to the interior took place in the same period.
Sebastián de Belalcázar, conqueror of Quito, traveled north and founded Cali, in 1536, and Popayán, in 1537; In the 16th century, the nautical science in Spain reached a great development thanks to numerous scientific figures of the Casa de Contratación and nautical science was an essential pillar of the Iberian expansion.
When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada".
These sites date from the Paleoindian period (18,000–8000 BCE).In 1547, New Granada became the Captaincy-General of New Granada within the viceroyalty.In 1549, the Royal Audiencia was created by a royal decree, and New Granada was ruled by the Royal Audience of Santa Fe de Bogotá, which at that time comprised the provinces of Santa Marta, Rio de San Juan, Popayán, Guayana and Cartagena.Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines.Ecologically, it is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer.).